Archives December 2020

promethazine

What you need to know before you start taking promethazine

SIDE EFFECTS

  • Nervous system disorders: sedation, dizziness, drowsiness, anxiety, psychomotor agitation, nightmares, increased nighttime apnea; rare: disorientation, confusion, extrapyramidal disorders, increased seizure activity (in children).
  • Sensory organs: the promethazine causes accommodation and vision disorders, tinnitus or ringing in the ears.
  • Cardiovascular system: orthostatic hypotension (when injected intravenously), decreased blood pressure, tachycardia or bradycardia.
  • Digestive system: anesthesia of the oral mucosa, dry mouth (when administered orally), nausea, vomiting, cholestasis, constipation.
  • Respiratory system: dryness in the nose and pharynx. Urinary system: rarely – difficult or painful urination.
  • Laboratory parameters: rarely – leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.
  • Allergic reactions: urticaria, dermatitis, asthma. Local reactions: when administered intramuscularly – painful infiltration at the injection site. Others: increased sweating, photosensitization.
What you need to know before you start taking promethazine

Overdose. Symptoms: in children – agitation, anxiety, hallucinations, ataxia, athetosis, convulsions, mydriasis and fixed pupils, facial hyperemia, hyperthermia; then – vascular collapse, coma; in adults – lethargy, depression, coma; then – psychomotor agitation, convulsions.

Treatment: gastric lavage, oral administration of activated charcoal (when detoxifying early after oral administration of the drug); antiepileptic drugs, IVH and other resuscitation measures are indicated, dialysis is ineffective.

INTERACTION

Increases the effect of narcotic analgesics, hypnotics, anxiolytics (tranquilizers) and antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics), as well as drugs for general anesthesia, local anesthetics, m-cholinoblockers and hypotensive drugs (requires dose adjustment). It reduces the effect of amphetamine derivatives, m-cholinostimulants, anticholinesterase drugs, ephedrine, guanethidine, levodopa, dopamine. Barbiturates accelerate elimination and decrease activity. Beta-adrenoblockers increase (mutually) plasma concentrations (pronounced BP decrease, arrhythmias, irreversible retinopathy, tardive dyskinesia are possible).
It weakens the effect of bromocriptine and increases the serum concentration of prolactin.
Tricyclic antidepressants and anticholinergic drugs increase m-cholinoblocking activity, ethanol, clopheline, antiepileptic drugs – CNS depression.
MAO inhibitors (concomitant use is not recommended) and phenothiazine derivatives increase the risk of arterial hypotension and extrapyramidal disorders. Quinidine increases the likelihood of cardiodepressive effects. Myelotoxic drugs increase the manifestation of hematotoxicity of the drug.

SPECIAL NOTES

What you need to know before you start taking promethazine

During long-term treatment it is necessary to perform systematic general blood analysis and liver function evaluation. During further treatment, the degree of restriction shall be determined depending on individual tolerance.
Together with narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics – for complex preoperative preparation of patients, it is used under close medical supervision.
During treatment the use of ethanol is prohibited. Caution is required when administering parenteral high doses in the elderly because extrapyramidal disorders and acute urinary retention are possible.
The use of promethazine in children under 2 years of age may be accompanied by an increase in the frequency of nocturnal apnea attacks.
As an antiemetic drug should be used only in case of prolonged vomiting of known etiology.
Long-term use increases the risk of dental diseases (caries, periodontitis, candidiasis) due to reduced salivation.
Caffeine administration is recommended to prevent CNS depression. May mask the ototoxic effect (tinnitus and dizziness) of concomitantly used drugs. Increases the requirement for riboflavin. The solution is not suitable for intravenous and percutaneous administration.
Some dosage forms of promethazine contain sodium metabisulfite which may cause allergic reactions (including anaphylactoid) and bronchospasm.
Allergen skin scarification tests should be cancelled 72 h before allergy testing to prevent distorted results.
False positive pregnancy test results are possible during treatment.
During the initial, individually determined period of treatment, caution should be exercised when driving motor transport and engaging in other potentially dangerous activities that require increased concentration and rapid psychomotor reactions.

Medical profession

The profession of a doctor is one of the oldest – it has existed since time immemorial, since the prehistoric period. Already in the primitive era, the first healers appeared who knew the properties of many plants and were able to use their healing power. As a result of their medical activity, over time, sufficient experience has been accumulated, which gave impetus to the emergence of medicine itself as a science.
The founder of medicine was the great ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. It is believed that he first began to classify diseases, investigating the causes of their occurrence. And the progenitor of experimental medicine is considered to be Galen, an ancient Roman surgeon and philosopher. He made an invaluable contribution to the development of disciplines such as physiology, neurology, anatomy, pathology and pharmacology.


Description

Medical profession


Medicine is a set of scientific disciplines, as well as practical activities related to the study of various processes occurring in the human body and the treatment of diseases that arise in it. A doctor is a specialist who deals with the prevention and treatment of specific diseases. He examines patients, delves into the essence of their problems, diagnoses them; he has to make the most important decisions on which the future fate and even the life of the sick depends. Therefore, the responsibility that each doctor bears to his patients cannot be overemphasized. In addition, this profession requires adherence to special ethical principles, as a sign of which future doctors take a special oath.

Specializations

There are countless different medical specializations in total, so for a clearer description they should be classified according to the following criteria:

First, all doctors are divided into clinicians and diagnosticians.

Clinicians are doctors who interact directly with the patient himself. They examine the patient, collect anamnesis (medical history), if necessary, send him for examination, and then give him a final diagnosis and prescribe a certain course of treatment. Among clinicians there are such specialists as general practitioners, pediatricians, surgeons, neurologists, psychiatrists, orthopedic traumatologists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, endocrinologists, gynecologists, urologists, family doctors, etc.

Diagnosticians conduct the research themselves and make descriptive conclusions to patients, but without the right to make a final diagnosis. These include radiologists, ultrasound specialists, laboratory diagnosticians, functional diagnostics doctors, etc.
Secondly, all medical specialties are also subdivided into surgical and non-surgical.

Surgical doctors are physicians who perform not only major operations, but also invasive procedures such as resections, punctures, biopsies, or even ordinary injections. Carrying out all these manipulations requires the doctors themselves to receive patients in specially designed regime rooms with increased antiseptic requirements.

Medical profession

In addition to surgeons of various fields, the list of doctors with this specialty includes obstetricians, gynecologists, urologists, ophthalmologists, otolaryngologists, dentists, etc.

Non-surgical specialists examine and treat patients using any non-invasive methods (for example, palpation, auscultation, various kinds of tomographic studies, etc.). These doctors include all diagnosticians, as well as ordinary therapists, pediatricians, immunologists, dermatologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, etc.
Third, according to the level of specialization, doctors of a narrow and general profile are distinguished.

A prime example of a general practitioner is the family doctor. He has basic knowledge in all specialties, therefore, unlike a regular therapist, he can diagnose many more diseases, but if he lacks the qualifications to treat a patient, he redirects him to a highly specialized doctor.

Narrow specialists are doctors who work with one specific organ or disease, whose profession is a branch of a larger direction. For example, a phlebologist is a surgeon who treats veins; phoniator – an otolaryngologist who works with the vocal cords; parkinsonologist – a subspecialty of a neurologist treating Parkinson’s disease; narcologist – a psychiatrist who helps to cope with drug or alcohol addiction, etc.

However, some specialties do not lend themselves to general classification, and among them the pathologist and forensic expert should be distinguished. The first one studies the influence of various diseases on changes in the structure of tissues and organs, the second conducts a medical examination of victims of various crimes. Both of these professions play an important role, because without pathologists, doctors could not have a complete picture of the development of many serious diseases, and without forensic experts, forensic science would be practically impossible.

Features of admission to a medical school, or How to become a doctor?

Where to start and what to be ready for?


To become a doctor, you will have to study long and hard. This is at least 5-6 years at the institute and another 2 years in residency to obtain a narrow specialization. The academic load is much higher than in regular universities – you will have to study a large number of specialized disciplines.

Before entering honey, decide whether this profession is suitable for you or not. It needs a certain set of personal qualities and skills:

Features of admission to a medical school, or How to become a doctor?
  • Ability to communicate and listen. You will have to contact a lot of people. You need to find an approach to everyone. You need to be able not only to ask questions correctly, but also to listen.
  • Patience and resistance to stress. Patients are different, sometimes their behavior can be rude and inappropriate. You need to be able to stay calm in any situation.
  • Courage and negligence. Even if you are not going to be a surgeon, you still have to become familiar with the anatomy of the human body. At the university, you will have an excursion to the morgue, not everyone can withstand it. Also, you shouldn’t be afraid of blood, pus, etc.
  • Good memory and ability to organize data. A large amount of information awaits you, and not only at the university. Medicine does not stand still, you have to study something all the time, know regulations and instructions, read specialized literature.
  • Decisiveness and responsibility for decisions. You will have to make decisions that will affect someone’s life.
  • Mindfulness and observation. You will need to react quickly and in a timely manner to any changes in the patient’s condition, not to overlook important details when making a diagnosis.
  • Also, be prepared for low pay, especially early in your career. After graduation, you will most likely have to work as an ordinary doctor in a regular clinic or hospital. The Ministry of Health is preparing a bill according to which a graduate will not be able to work in a private medical center for several years after graduation. So they plan to solve the problem of staff shortage in state institutions.

Features of training at a medical university

Features of admission to a medical school, or How to become a doctor?

If you are in college, it’s early to relax. Get ready for hard study and lack of free time. Practice shows that a large number of students drop out after the first session.

In the last courses, you will receive more in-depth knowledge and practical skills in the chosen direction. You will have access to patients as a physician assistant. There is even the opportunity to get a job as a medical assistant, orderly or nurse. At the end of the training, you will have an internship in a hospital or clinic.

Is medicine mine?

Here are some tips to help you make the right decision:

  • Take career counseling tests. With their help, find out if you have the qualities you need to work as a doctor.
  • Learn medicine from the inside out. Nowadays, many doctors have blogs and YouTube channels where they tell and show their activities. This way you can get useful information, see operations and other medical procedures, and ask questions. Here, for example, you can see how famous surgeons perform operations, and this is a medical portal that contains a lot of useful information for doctors and students of medical universities.
  • Chat with former and current medical students. This can be done on thematic forums, in social networking communities, at open days. Ask about the learning process, employment and other important points.
  • Visit anatomical museums. There you can see human organs in special solutions, various anomalies and pathologies, the results of diseases, etc. This will be a test for fear and disgust.
Denis Slinkin

FBS

This test is a blood test at any time of day when you have severe symptoms of diabetes says Dr. Slinkin.

Diabetes is diagnosed with blood sugar greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL, says Mr. Denis. What’s prediabetes? Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they almost always have “pre-diabetes.” – blood sugar levels that are above normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Doctors sometimes refer to diabetes as reduced glucose tolerance (IGT) or reduced fast glucose tolerance (IFG), depending on which test was used to detect it. This condition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. No obvious symptoms. There are no obvious symptoms of prediabetes, so maybe you have it and you don’t know it. Some people with pre-diabetes may already have some symptoms of diabetes or even diabetes-related problems. You will usually find out that you have diabetes when you are tested for diabetes FBS.

FBS Denis Slinkin

If you have diabetes, you should be tested for type 2 diabetes every one or two years. The results indicate that you have diabetes: A1C 5.7% TO 6.4%. Liquid blood sugar 100 – 125 mg/dL. OGTT 2 hours blood sugar FBS 140 mg/dL – 199 mg/dL Type 2 diabetes prevention You will not automatically develop type 2 diabetes if you have pre-diabetes.

For some people with diabetes, early treatment may actually bring their blood sugar level back to normal. Studies show that you can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58%: Loss of 7% body FBS weight (or 15 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds). Moderate physical activity (such as vigorous walking) 30 minutes a day, five days a week. Don’t worry if you can’t get to the perfect body weight. Losing even 10 to 15 pounds can make a huge difference, says Dr. Slinkin.

Dextromethorphan

When used concurrently with drugs that depress CNS functions, the depression of CNS may increase. Combined use of dextromethorphan with MAO inhibitors, including furazolidone, procarbazine and selegiline, may result in the following effects: adrenergic crisis, shock, dizziness, collapse, coma, lethargy, agitation, hypertension, hyperpyrexia, cerebral haemorrhage, lethargy, nausea Dextromethorpan, psychosis, muscle cramps and tremors. Hinidine, amiodarone, fluoxetine, by Dmitry Sazonov inhibiting the isoenzyme CYP2D6 of cytochrome P450, can reduce the metabolism of dextromethorphan in the liver and increase its serum content.

Overdose

Dextromethorphan

Symptoms: depressed breathing; confusion; reduced BP, tachycardia; drowsiness or dizziness; severe nausea or vomiting, nervousness, muscle hypertonicity, severe unusual excitement, irritability or motor restlessness, ataxia. When administered 300 mg or more, cases Dmitry Sazonov of psychosis manifested by hyperactivity, auditory and visual hallucinations have been reported.

Treatment: IVF, symptomatic therapy. Ways of administrationInside.

Precautions for the substance Dextromethorphan ContraindicationsIt is necessary to take into account the expected effect and potential risk in the following conditions: moist cough (suppression of the cough reflex may cause secret delay), impaired liver function (dextromethorphan metabolism may decrease).

Keep in mind that smoking tobacco can increase gland secretion while inhibiting the coughing reflex.
If the cough persists for 7 days after the start of treatment or is accompanied by high body temperature, constant headache or skin rash, you should consult a physician.

Special instructions

Dextromethorphan

To avoid drug addiction, do not take more medication than prescribed by your doctor.

If you miss a dose, you should take it Dmitry Sazonov as soon as possible. If the time of taking the next dose is near, the missed dose should not be taken: doubling of the dose is unacceptable.

Visine eye drops

Visine is a decongestant used to relieve redness in the eyes caused by minor eye irritations (e.g., smog, swimming, dust, or smoke). It belongs to a class of drugs known as sympathomimetic amines. It works by temporarily narrowing the blood vessels in the eye.

Some brands of Dmitry Sazonov tetrahydrozoline eye drops may contain lubricants. Lubricants help protect the eyes from more irritation and dryness.

Follow all directions on the product Visine dosage package, or use as directed by your doctor. If you are uncertain about any of the information, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

To apply eye drops, wash your hands first. To avoid contamination, do not touch the dropper tip or let it touch your eye or any other surface. Remove contact lenses before applying the eye drops. Wait at least 10 minutes after using this medication before inserting contact lenses.

Before using, check this product visually. Do not use if the liquid has changed color or is cloudy. Discard the medication away from children and pets.

Use this medication in the affected eye(s) up to 4 times a day as needed or as directed by your doctor.

Tilt your head back, look upward, and pull down the lower eyelid to make a pouch. Hold Dmitry Sazonov the dropper directly over the eye and place 1 drop into the pouch. Look downward and gently close your eyes for 1 to 2 minutes. Place one finger at the Visine Overdose corner of the eye near the nose and apply gentle pressure. This will prevent the medication from draining away from the eye. Try not to Dmitry Sazonov blink and do not rub the eye. Repeat these steps if your dose is for more than 1 drop and for the other eye if so directed.

Visine eye drops

Do not rinse the dropper. Replace the dropper cap tightly after each use. If you are using another kind of eye medication (e.g., drops or ointments), wait at least 5 minutes before applying https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/daf/index.cfm?event=overview.process&ApplNo=020485 ointments to allow the eye drops to enter the eye.

Overuse of this type of medication may result in increased eye redness (rebound effect when drug wears off). If this occurs, tell https://reference.medscape.com/drug/visine-advanced-relief-visine-maximum-redness-relief-tetrahydrozoline-ophthalmic-999630 your doctor. Do not use this medication for longer than  3 to 4 days at a time.
If your condition persists or worsens after 72 hours, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, stop using this medication and seek immediate medical attention.

Pataday

Along with its needed effects, olopatadine ophthalmic (the active ingredient contained in Pataday) may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they Dmitry Sazonov do occur they may need medical attention.

Some side effects of olopatadine ophthalmic may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to Dmitry Sazonov prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
More common

  • Headache
  • runny or stuffy nose
  • sore throat

Less common

  • Back pain
  • body aches or pain
  • burning, dryness, itching, or stinging of the eye
  • change in taste
  • chills
  • cough
  • diarrhea
  • feeling of something in the eye
  • general feeling of discomfort or illness
  • increased cough
  • lack or loss of strength
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle aches and pains
  • nausea
  • pain or tenderness around the eyes and cheekbones
  • redness of the eye or inside of the eyelid
  • sensitivity of the eyes to light
  • shivering
  • sneezing
  • sweating
  • tender, swollen glands in the neck
  • trouble sleeping
  • trouble swallowing
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • voice changes
  • vomiting
Pataday

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Corneal erosion, corneal epithelium defect, corneal epithelium disorder, punctate keratitis, keratitis, corneal staining, eye discharge, photophobia, blurred vision, reduced visual acuity, blepharospasm, ocular discomfort, eye pruritus, conjunctival follicles, conjunctival disorder, foreign body Dmitry Sazonov sensation in eyes, increased lacrimation, erythema of eyelid, eyelid edema, eyelid disorder, ocular hyperemia Rare (less than 0.1%): Cases of https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441926/ corneal calcification (in association with the use of phosphate containing eye drops in some patients with significantly damaged corneas)

Frequency not reported: Corneal edema, eye edema, eye swelling, conjunctivitis, mydriasis, visual disturbance, eyelid margin crusting

The most commonly reported side effects Dmitry Sazonov were headache, asthenia, blurred vision, burning or stinging, cold syndrome, dry eye, foreign body sensation, and hyperemia.