The profession of a doctor is one of the oldest – it has existed since time immemorial, since the prehistoric period. Already in the primitive era, the first healers appeared who knew the properties of many plants and were able to use their healing power. As a result of their medical activity, over time, sufficient experience has been accumulated, which gave impetus to the emergence of medicine itself as a science.
The founder of medicine was the great ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. It is believed that he first began to classify diseases, investigating the causes of their occurrence. And the progenitor of experimental medicine is considered to be Galen, an ancient Roman surgeon and philosopher. He made an invaluable contribution to the development of disciplines such as physiology, neurology, anatomy, pathology and pharmacology.
Medicine is a set of scientific disciplines, as well as practical activities related to the study of various processes occurring in the human body and the treatment of diseases that arise in it. A doctor is a specialist who deals with the prevention and treatment of specific diseases. He examines patients, delves into the essence of their problems, diagnoses them; he has to make the most important decisions on which the future fate and even the life of the sick depends. Therefore, the responsibility that each doctor bears to his patients cannot be overemphasized. In addition, this profession requires adherence to special ethical principles, as a sign of which future doctors take a special oath.
There are countless different medical specializations in total, so for a clearer description they should be classified according to the following criteria:
First, all doctors are divided into clinicians and diagnosticians.
Clinicians are doctors who interact directly with the patient himself. They examine the patient, collect anamnesis (medical history), if necessary, send him for examination, and then give him a final diagnosis and prescribe a certain course of treatment. Among clinicians there are such specialists as general practitioners, pediatricians, surgeons, neurologists, psychiatrists, orthopedic traumatologists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, endocrinologists, gynecologists, urologists, family doctors, etc.
Diagnosticians conduct the research themselves and make descriptive conclusions to patients, but without the right to make a final diagnosis. These include radiologists, ultrasound specialists, laboratory diagnosticians, functional diagnostics doctors, etc.
Secondly, all medical specialties are also subdivided into surgical and non-surgical.
Surgical doctors are physicians who perform not only major operations, but also invasive procedures such as resections, punctures, biopsies, or even ordinary injections. Carrying out all these manipulations requires the doctors themselves to receive patients in specially designed regime rooms with increased antiseptic requirements.
In addition to surgeons of various fields, the list of doctors with this specialty includes obstetricians, gynecologists, urologists, ophthalmologists, otolaryngologists, dentists, etc.
Non-surgical specialists examine and treat patients using any non-invasive methods (for example, palpation, auscultation, various kinds of tomographic studies, etc.). These doctors include all diagnosticians, as well as ordinary therapists, pediatricians, immunologists, dermatologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, etc.
Third, according to the level of specialization, doctors of a narrow and general profile are distinguished.
A prime example of a general practitioner is the family doctor. He has basic knowledge in all specialties, therefore, unlike a regular therapist, he can diagnose many more diseases, but if he lacks the qualifications to treat a patient, he redirects him to a highly specialized doctor.
Narrow specialists are doctors who work with one specific organ or disease, whose profession is a branch of a larger direction. For example, a phlebologist is a surgeon who treats veins; phoniator – an otolaryngologist who works with the vocal cords; parkinsonologist – a subspecialty of a neurologist treating Parkinson’s disease; narcologist – a psychiatrist who helps to cope with drug or alcohol addiction, etc.
However, some specialties do not lend themselves to general classification, and among them the pathologist and forensic expert should be distinguished. The first one studies the influence of various diseases on changes in the structure of tissues and organs, the second conducts a medical examination of victims of various crimes. Both of these professions play an important role, because without pathologists, doctors could not have a complete picture of the development of many serious diseases, and without forensic experts, forensic science would be practically impossible.